c Cha Ho Ngoc Can  (1876-1948)
Mot nha Van hoa Giao Duc ln cua Tien Ban The ky xX

GS Nguyen Ly-Tng

Khong ch rieng cac cu hoc sinh hai trng Ho Ngoc Can Bui Chu (mien Bac VN trc 1954) va trng Ho Ngoc Can Gia nh (t 1954 en 1975) ma ca hang trieu ngi Cong Giao cung nh nhan s, tr thc va ong bao t Bac ch Nam a biet en nha ao c kiem van hoa giao duc cua tien ban the ky 20: c Giam Muc a Minh Ho Ngoc Can (1876-1948). Ngai a viet ca tram quyen sach trong o co hn 30 tac pham ln trc tac, dch thuat thuoc u moi the loai t van chng, triet hoc, khoa hoc, ton giao, ao c... sach giao khoa, toan hoc, sinh ng, co ng v.v... en cac loai t ien Phap, Han, La Tinh... o la cha ke cac bai bao ngai viet di nhieu but hieu nh Ngo Ky An, Ngo Tri Dc, Ngo Ky Vang, Ngo Tri Le, Ho Ngoc Can v.v... ang tren cac bao xuat ban t Bac ch Nam nh Nam Ky a Phan (xuat ban tai Sai Gon t cuoi the ky 19), bao V Chua (xuat ban tai Hue t 1933), ban nguyet san a Minh (xuat ban tai Bui Chu khoang 1936) v.v... Ngai a xay dng nhieu trng hoc, tu vien, chung vien, benh vien, co nhi vien, lap nha in, nha xuat ban va to chc ra nhieu hoi oan Cong Giao... a mot thi, ngai c xem la nha thong thai cua 3 nc ong Dng (Viet, Mien, Lao) cua tien ban the ky 20, cac Linh Muc ngi Au cung phai kieng ne.

The theo li yeu cau cua mot so cu giao s va cu hoc sinh trng Ho Ngoc Can, va vi s tr giup cua Giao S Le Ngoc Bch, ngi ban cung lp hien con lai Viet Nam, chung toi xin ghi lai mot vai net ve c Giam Muc a Minh Ho Ngoc Can, mot nha van hoa giao duc ln cua Viet Nam tien ban the ky 20 e ghi nh cong n ngai va cung e ky niem nhng nam day hoc tai trng Ho Ngoc Can Gia nh trc 30-4-1975.

HO NGOC CA: MO COI CHA, LN LEN NH QUE ME

c Cha a Minh Ho Ngoc Can sinh ngay 3 thang 12 nam 1876 (18 thang 10 Am lch nam Bnh Ty) tai x ao Ba Chau (lang Vnh Lu, xa Phu Lng, huyen Phu Vang, tnh Tha Thien). Cha la Giuse Ho Ngoc Thi (lam nghe day hoc va thay thuoc), me la Anna Nguyen Th ao (ngi lang Trng An thuoc giao x Th uc, huyen Hng Thuy, tnh Tha Thien). Ong ba sinh c hai ngi con trai at ten la Ho Ngoc Ca va Ho Ngoc Vnh. Ho Ngoc Ca ve sau oi ten la Ho Ngoc Can. Cha mat sm, me a hai con ve que ngoai sinh song.

Ve nguon goc cua ngai, nhieu ngi cho biet que noi cua ngai lang Co Thanh, phu Trieu Phong, tnh Quang Tr, v hoan canh ac biet, gia nh phai vao lap nghiep Tha Thien. Ben ho noi khong theo Cong Giao. Khi ngai chu chc Giam Muc th ngi lang Co Thanh co c mot phai oan vao Toa Giam Muc Hue chuc mng va mang theo gia pha cua dong ho e nhan ba con. Nhng ngai ch vui ve mi tat ca moi ngi vao d tiec ma khong nhac g en chuyen qua kh.

I TU LUC 13 TUOI: CHAM HOC, HOC GIOI

LM Phanxico Xavie Trng Van Thng, cha x Trng An, la ngi a gii thieu cau Ho Ngoc Ca (Can) vao tu hoc tai Tieu Chung Vien An Ninh (Ca Tung, Quang Tr). Khi thi nhap hoc, cau Ho Ngoc Ca a khong u iem. May nh Cha Thng xin vi Linh Muc giam khao (cha Izarn: Y) va LM Giam oc Tieu Chung Vien (Cha Girard) cho cau vao hoc th vai thang. Chu Ca a tien bo vt bc, ch trong vai thang a theo kp chung ban va nhng nam sau o eu dan au lp. Chng trnh tai Tieu Chung Vien la 8 nam ma Ho Ngoc Ca ch hoc trong 6 nam la xong! Cac Linh Muc cung thi vi ngai a ke lai rang tat ca nhng sach v trong th vien, Ho Ngoc Ca eu oc het. Chu Ca con t hoc them ve sinh ng, co ng va cac mon khoa hoc thng thc khac. Sau khi Cha Thng qua i (1891) th LM Allys (tc Co Ly, cha x Phu Cam) nhan chu Ho Ngoc Ca lam ngha t. Cha Allys ngi Phap ve sau lam Giam Muc Hue (thng goi la c Cha Ly).

HO NGOC CA OI TEN: LINH MUC HO NGOC CAN

Ho Ngoc Ca hoc Tieu Chung Vien t 1889 en 1896. Vao ai Chung Vien Phu Xuan ngay 5 thang 8 nam 1896(*). Chu phep cat toc ngay 17-12-1896, chu bon chc nho ngay 23-12-1899. Chu chc Nam ngay 22-12-1900. Chu chc Sau ngay 22-2-1902. Chu chc Linh Muc ngay 21-12-1902 luc mi 26 tuoi. Trc ngay chu chc Linh Muc, Thay Ho Ngoc Ca xin oi ten la Ho Ngoc Can.

T 3 thang 11 nam 1903, ngai lam cha Pho Ke Van (Quang Tr) vi Cha Gilbert (Co Quy) va t 8-8-1907 lam pho cho Cha Anton Marillebau (Co Nhiem) cung giao x Ke Van.

Ngay 3-11-1907, lam cha x ho Ke Hac (Van Loc) thuoc tnh Quang Bnh.

NGI VIET NAM AU TIEN LAM GIAO S CHUNG VIEN

Thang 9-1910 lam giao s tai Tieu Chung Vien An Ninh la mot giao s ngi Viet Nam au tien. Trc o, cac giao s toan la ngi Au Chau. Ngai day cac mon La Tinh, Phap, Toan, Viet vi mot phng phap s pham rat tien bo, de hieu, de nh, trnh bay rat ro rang, sang sua khien cho hoc tro rat thch thu.

BE TREN TIEN KHI DONG THANH TAM

Nam 1923 c Cha Allys xin phep Toa Thanh lap Dong Thanh Tam, tru s tai Trng An (thuoc giao x Th uc, huyen Hng Thuy, tnh Tha Thien). Nam 1924, sau khi c s nha Dong c xay cat xong, Cha Ho Ngoc Can c c lam Be Tren tien khi cua Dong nay. Tren 10 nam ieu khien Dong nay, Cha Ho Ngoc Can a xay dng c 4 trng tieu hoc (Trng An, Phu Cam, Kim Long, Lai An) va m nha in "Thanh Tam" (luc au goi la Trng An an quan) e in sach bao, tai lieu Cong Giao cua Giao Phan Hue. Cu Nguyen Hu Bai (1863-1935), Thng Th hu tr a dang cung tha vn va nha ca e lap c s nay. Cac Cha Nguyen Van Thch (Pho Be tren Dong) va Cha Ngo nh Thuc (giao s) a giup Cha Ho Ngoc Can xay dng Dong nay.

GIAM MUC VN AU TIEN CUA GIAO PHAN BUI CHU

Luc bay gi c Cha Munagorri (Giam Muc th 14 cua GP Bui Chu, ngi Tay Ban Nha) a gia yeu, khong the lam viec c na, ngai thng Khoai ong, thanh pho Nam nh vi LM Casado (Co Thuan) ch khong Toa Giam Muc. Ngai e ngh c LM Hoang Gia Hue, chanh x Ninh Cng lam Giam Muc Pho. Nhng c Kham S Toa Thanh la c Cha Columban Dreyer Hue, sau khi a tham khao y kien nhieu ngi, lien viet t trnh len c Thanh Cha Pio XI e ngh c LM a Minh Ho Ngoc Can lam Giam Muc Pho Bui Chu vi quyen ke v va c Toa Thanh chap thuan.

Le tan phong c to chc tai nha th chnh toa Phu Cam, Hue ngay 29-3-1935 do c Kham S Toa Thanh Columban Dreyer chu le va hai Giam Muc Chabanon (c Cha Giao Hue) va c Cha Nguyen Ba Tong (Phat Diem) phu phong. Tan Giam Muc a Minh Ho Ngoc Can hieu toa Zenobis chon khau hieu: "Het tnh nhan nhuc va tan tam giao huan." Ngai a nh cu Ton That Sa (1882-1980), mot giao s hoi hoa Hue ve huy hieu hnh thuan, gia la Thanh Tam Chua Giesu chieu anh sang ra hai ben, mot ben la song Hng nui Ng, mot ben la nha th Bui Chu, pha di la cuon sach vi trang hat man Coi.

Ngay 17-5-1936, c Giam Muc Pedro Munagorri chnh thc trao quyen cai quan giao phan cho c Cha a Minh Ho Ngoc Can va mot thang sau, ngai mat. Theo Sac Lenh cua Toa Thanh ngay 9-3-1936 hai tnh Thai Bnh va Hng Yen c tach ra e thanh lap giao phan mi Thai Bnh nen giao phan Bui Chu ch con lai phan at thuoc tnh Bui Chu va mot phan cua tnh Nam nh.

GIAM MUC CHU TRNG NOI TIENG VIET

Thi bay gi ngi ta thch noi tieng Phap hoac tieng La Tinh, ngay ca khi khong co s hien dien cua ngi ngoai quoc. Nhng c Cha a Minh Ho Ngoc Can th chu trng noi tieng Viet, i au cung noi tieng Viet, ngay ca khi phat bieu trong cac hoi ngh quoc te.

Ngay 1 thang 8 nam 1935, oan xe khi hanh t Hue a c Cha Ho Ngoc Can ra Bui Chu, trong ba tiec mng, LM Gallego (Co Nam) oc chuc t bang tieng Phap ke cong lao 300 nam truyen giao cua Dong a Minh... c Cha Ho Hoc Can, xin phep c ap t bang tieng Viet. Khi ngai en tham Chung Vien Ninh Cng va ai Chung Vien Nam nh, cac Thay oc bai chuc mng bang tieng La Tinh, ngai ap t bang tieng Viet. Ngai noi: "La ngi Viet Nam ca, noi bang tieng me e cho no than tnh." Nam 1937, ngai tham d ai Hoi Thanh the to chc tai Manila (Phi Luat Tan) vi s hien dien cua hang tram Giam Muc u moi quoc tch. Thong thng th cac Giam Muc Viet Nam phat bieu bang tieng Phap v thi o nc ta thuoc quyen cai tr cua ngi Phap. Nhng c Cha a Minh Ho Ngoc Can lai phat bieu bang tieng Viet, lam cho moi ngi rat ngac nhien. Bao Nam Ky a Phan so 1148 ra ngay 8 thang 4 nam 1937 co ang bai phat bieu nay.

GIAM MUC CO NHIEU SANG KIEN, CHU TRNG CAI CACH VA DAN CHU

Sau khi nhan giao phan, ngai cai to lai cac chung vien, dan chu hoa bang cach tham khao y kien cua cac Linh Muc (bang th) trc khi bo nhiem mot v nao vao hang lanh ao trong giao phan, mot loat cac quan hat mi c e c thay the cac v cu. Ngai thng noi vi cac Cha:"Linh Muc va Giam Muc la anh em nh the tay chan." Ngai ch than giang cam phong hang nam cho cac Linh Muc trong giao phan suot 12 nam. Ngai chu trong ao tao nhan tai cho tng lai, mot so thay c cho i du hoc sau nay la cac Linh Muc danh tieng nh LM Tran Van Hien Minh, LM Lam Quang Trong, LM Vu c Trinh... Ngai xin phep Toa Thanh lap ai Chung Vien Quan Phng rieng cho giao phan Bui Chu e sinh vien khoi qua Nam nh hoc... va a c Toa Thanh chap thuan (khai giang 1940). Ngai lap ra Dong N c Me Man Coi Bui Chu (van ong t nam 1940 en 1946 mi c Toa Thanh chap thuan). Ngai lap ra trng Trung Linh, mi cac S huynh Dong La San ve day. Ngai thanh lap benh vien Thanh Tam Bui Chu, co nhi vien (S Duc Anh, S Co Nhi) Bui Chu. Ngai than hanh cham soc tan tay cm nc cho cac co nhi. Nan oi nam 1945, nhng vung hoa hoan, thien tai, bao lut nh Kien Chnh, Quan Lieu, Chung Lao, Bac Ninh, ngai em het lua gao cua Nha Chung ra giup cho dan. Ngai ho hao bai tr te oan xa hoi, bai bo nhng hu tuc, c bac ru che... Ngai thanh lap cac hoi oan thieu nhi, thanh nien va ngi ln tuoi, hoi Tong o Cau Nguyen (1938), Thanh Nien Cong Giao Nc Nam (hop ai hoi tai Phu Nhai nam 1938 quy tu tren 10,000 oan vien), Dong Ba a Minh, Ban Truyen Giao a Phan...

NHA VAN HOA, GIAO DUC

Ngai la mot nha thong thai tai ong Dng (Viet, Mien, Lao) thi bay gi. Cach ay hn 100 nam ma ngai a viet sach, viet bao, lam t ien, soan sach day ve khoa hoc. ac biet, ngai su tam nhng kinh do cac Linh Muc xa at ra, khong co in trong sach kinh thong thng (sach Nht khoa) nh: "Phep lan hot Rat Thanh Trai Tim c Chua Giesu," "Don mnh trc va cam n sau khi rc le," "sach Thang c Ba" (t ch Nom chuyen qua ch quoc ng), bien soan sach "Thang Ong Thanh Giuse" va "Thang Rat Thanh Trai Tim c Chua Giesu" (theo kieu sach Thang c Ba). Sach "Van Sinh Nht" do i xa e lai viet bang ch Nom (ngai chuyen qua quoc ng va cho in e pho bien). Ngai lam ra sach "Cha me day con." Ngai a bien soan cuon "Van chng thi phu" sao luc nhieu th van cua nhieu tac gia (trong o cung co th cua Ho Xuan Hng) muc ch e cho cac trng Cong Giao hoc van chng tieng Viet. Ngai cung a chon nhng bai van hay e in chung thanh sach "Tan Van" lam sach oc (cho hoc sinh va ngi ln). Ngai co tai lam th, viet van, dien thuyet, co khi cao hng th oc ca bai th luc bat that dai... Ngai cung m ra mot khoa s pham mi khi day hoc. Ngai rat thch day hoc va giang giai bnh dan, de hieu nen hoc tro rat thch nhat la cac mon Triet Hoc, Than Hoc, Giao Ly... ngai giang giai rat ro rang. Ngai gioi ca Han van, Phap van, La tinh, oc sach, oc bao nhieu nen kien thc cua ngai rat uyen bac. Ngai day cac mon Viet, Phap, La Tinh, Toan, Khoa Hoc trong cac lp Trung Hoc (Tieu Chung Vien) va cac mon Triet Hoc, Than Hoc, La Tinh (tai ai Chung Vien)... Cu Phan Boi Chau khi oc bai: "Luan ve cau: Li khong xng nhieu ng lat leo" cua c Cha Ho Ngoc Can a khen: "Van chng nh chem sat, chat anh." T khi con la Linh Muc, x nao, ngai cung em lai cho dan chung mot nep song mi, mot khong kh hoat ong, ti vui, cham lo viec hoc hanh cho tre em, nang cao dan tr... Thi trc trong cac nha tu t chu trong en cac mon khoa hoc, toan, van chng Viet Nam, sinh ng... Chnh ngai a a chng trnh hoc cac mon noi tren vao trong cac chung vien, tu vien...

GIAY PHUT CUOI

Ngoai 70 tuoi, nhng ngai van lam viec nh mot ngi sc khoe bnh thng, viet sach, soan bai, giang day, i lai tham vieng cac ni. Mua ong nam 1948 (Mau Ty) mien Bac ret lanh khac thng, ngai b benh suyen ang thi chien tranh i lai kho khan, thuoc men thieu thon, ngai phai t tm cach cha tr lay, phng tien rat gii han. c Cha Nguyen Ba Tong luc bay gi a ngh hu, nghe tin ngai benh nang a en tham vao sang 26-11-1948 thay ngai con tnh tao. Ngai a chu phep Xc Dau Thanh don mnh chet. Nhng en chieu th ngai b te xu roi dan dan i vao cn me. Gan na em th ngai tnh lai va cung cac Linh Muc oc kinh "Pho thac linh hon" bang tieng La Tinh. Qua na em, ngai qua i mot cach nhe nhang. Luc o la 0 gi 27 phut khi au ngay 27 thang 11 nam 1948.

c Giam Muc a Minh Ho Ngoc Can vi 46 nam Linh Muc va 13 nam Giam Muc. Hng tho 72 tuoi.

Le an tang c hanh vao sang 30-11-1948, thang ac biet cau nguyen cho cac linh hon ngi qua co. Ngai c an tang ben trong nha th chnh toa Bui Chu. oan ngi i theo quan tai dai en 5 cay so, ngoai nhng giao dan Cong Giao con co rat nhieu hoc tro va phu huynh ngi ben lng, ac biet co Thng Toa Thch Bao Long ai dien Phat giao.

Sau khi ngai qua i, chnh quyen quoc gia tnh Bui Chu (mien Bac) a lay ten ngai at ten trng Trung Hoc Cong Lap Ho Ngoc Can (Bui Chu). Nam 1954, trng di c vao Nam lay ten la Trung Hoc Ho Ngoc Can Gia nh (trng Cong Lap) va do cac Linh Muc ieu khien. Sau ngay 01-11-1963, cac Linh Muc rut lui va trng c chuyen giao cho cac giao s cong lap ieu khien vi cu Nguyen Van Hieu lam hieu trng. Sau ngay 30-4-1975, trng oi ten la trng Nguyen nh Chieu. Che o Cong San VN chu trng xoa ten Ho Ngoc Can v ngai la mot nhan vat ton giao. Nhng nhom cu hoc sinh, cu giao s trng Ho Ngoc Can trong nc cung nh hai ngoai van con nh ten trng cu cua mnh (Bui Chu trc 1954 va Gia nh trc 1975) nen van lien lac vi nhau di danh ngha Hoi Cu Hoc Sinh trng Ho Ngoc Can.

Xin cam n Giao S Le Ngoc Bch (VN) a giup cho chung toi cac tai lieu ve c Giam Muc a Minh Ho Ngoc Can e viet bai nay.

(Nguyen Ly Tng - Cu Giao s trng Ho Ngoc Can, Gia nh 1971-1975)

(*) Chu thch: Theo GS Le Ngoc Bch, Thay Ho Ngoc Ca vao ai Chung Vien ngay 5-5-1896. Chung toi theo tai lieu cua Toa TGM Hue: 05-8-1896.

Phu Luc: Mot so tac pham cua c Cha a Minh Ho Ngoc Can con lu lai:

1. Van pham La Tinh (02 cuon)
2. Van pham tieng Phap (02 cuon). Hai cuon sach nay c bien soan khuc chiet, ro rang, de nh, de hoc, c giai thng cua c Kham S Toa Thanh.
3. Meo tieng An Nam (tc Van pham ch Quoc ng) (2 cuon)
4. Toan phap (02 cuon)
5. Han t quy giang (Van pham Han van)
6. Thng am nhat dung, van khe n t.
7. Luan Quoc van (02 cuon)
8. Phap t khuc ca
9. Tan n khuc ca
10. Ngan nh kinh th
11. Han Viet thng am (nha in Trng An Hue, 1942)
12. Van chng thi phu An Nam (in lan th hai, nha in Truyen giao hai ngoai, Hong Kong, 1923). Tac pham a c cu Phan Boi Chau khen ngi.
13. Con muon nha c Chua Tri (In lan th ba, Hong Kong, nha in Nazareth, 1930)
14. Tu vien trinh n.
15. Tu phan minh canh
16. Tu s than lng
17. Giup Linh Muc cam phong (nha in Bui Chu, 1938)
18. Thang Trai Tim Chua Giesu
19. Thang c Ba, thang Thanh Giuse 20. Gam quanh nam (dch, 5 cuon)
21. Phc hoa th phi (3 cuon)
22. Tuong (Bay Moi)
23. Truy tam chan ao (nha in Thanh gia Bui Chu, 1951)
24. Sach cha me day con
25. Than chung truy vien
26. Giao nhn hanh thien
27. Triet nhn tri ky
28. Que ta au?
29. Bon ong au (sach giao ly cho thieu nhi)
30. Thang giao thuyet minh (sach giao ly cho ngi ln)

Tai lieu tham khao:
1. Tieu s cac Linh Muc giao phan Hue (Toa TGM Hue) 1992
2. c Cha Ho Ngoc Can, Giam Muc Bui Chu (LM Pham Chau Dien, 1990)
3. Nhan Vat Giao Phan Hue (Le Ngoc Bch, 2000